Super Bowl XLII broke a number of records. The highly anticipated and ultra-competitive game was viewed by 97.5 million people, more than any other Super Bowl game. That turned out to be a good bargain for advertisers, which paid broadcaster Fox network $2.7 million for a 30-second spot, up only $100,000 from the previous yearâ€™s ad rates.
Without question, people were focused on this history-making gameâ€”had the Patriots won, they would have tied the Miami Dolphins for the NFLâ€™s second perfect-season record, albeit with a record of 19-0 compared to the Dolphinsâ€™ 17-0 season. But with so much riding on the actual gameplay, did viewers pay attention to the commercials? The answer is a resounding â€œYes.â€
AdBowl, a Web portal that asks visitors to rank the Super Bowl ads, listed the top four audience favorites: Anheuser-Buschâ€™s â€œTeam,â€ Bridgestoneâ€™s â€œScream,â€ Coca-Colaâ€™s â€œItâ€™s Mine,â€ and FedExâ€™s â€œCarrier Pigeon.â€ Visitors to the site could rate the spots in real time, igniting Internet chat boards while the game was in progress. As in past years, the best commercials were a mix of extremesâ€”the invisible and the very obvious digital effects. Squirrels clearly donâ€™t scream (as in Bridgestoneâ€™s â€œScreamâ€), and a horse canâ€™t pull a train car (â€œTeamâ€). And there are no monster-size pigeons (a la FedExâ€™s â€œCarrier Pigeonâ€). Conversely, the spots were also laden with such invisible effects as changing seasons (â€œTeamâ€), re-imagined cityscapes (â€œItâ€™s Mineâ€), and a falling crate that segues from CG to live action (â€œCarrier Pigeonâ€).
Whether the intent was a realistic or a stylized look, a humorous or a serious tone, or something else altogether, it was up to the entire creative group to work as a team to achieve the desired results. Obviously, this was done with great success in the four spots detailed below, with the VFX taking on the role of special teams to create the elements of magic and surprise, which made these spots particularly memorable.
COCA-COLA - "It's Mine"
Wieden & Kennedy/PortlandProduction company:
The Mill/New York
Everyone loves Macyâ€™s Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City, with its oversized balloons depicting popular characters. Wieden & Kennedy, with MJZâ€™s director Nicoli Fuglsig, built a commercial spot around this parade theme, with a story starring such balloons, along with some aerial high jinks not usually seen in the annual parade. The concept for â€œItâ€™s Mineâ€ was simple and compelling, and that, combined with a brilliant execution, had this commercial soaring above the others.
Cokeâ€™s â€œItâ€™s Mineâ€ entailed complex animation of the balloon characters. Also, Mayaâ€™s nCloth helped provide believable volume and squash and stretch.
The commercial starts on the ground, with big balloon versions of Stewie (from The Family Guy) and Underdog sparring over a bottle of Coke, a comical dispute they take to the heights above Manhattan. The ending twist is that neither of them wins the coveted Coke bottle: Rather, itâ€™s the perennial loser Charlie Brown who, for once, comes out on top.
Production company MJZ originally intended to create practical balloons for all the characters, which would be used in the first one-third of the 60-second commercial. The switch to CGI would take place when the balloon characters broke free of their earthly constraints and soared above the city. Specialist balloon builders were hard at work on the giant balloons, but by the time they were finished, the design for the characters had changed, and there was not enough time for a rebuild.
â€œAt first, they asked us to put CG feet on Stewie,â€ explains lead 3D artist Ben Smith from The Mill. â€œAt the same time, we were working with the CG balloons for background shots. Everyone got excited about how they looked, so they decided to just use CG balloons for the whole thing.â€
Creating the hero balloons didnâ€™t increase the number of shotsâ€”which Smith counts as 30â€”but it did up the intensity of the work. Unlike the airborne shots when the balloons break free, the earthly-bound ones required sophisticated animation. â€œIn the early stage, when the balloons are trying to escape the tethers, you see the ropes pull the surface of the cloth,â€ he says. â€œThey were difficult shots.â€
The background plates were shot at the beginning of December, giving The Millâ€™s team a week to start modeling the characters, which they did in Softimageâ€™s XSI. The models were then rigged and simulated in Autodeskâ€™s Maya, and transferred back to Softimage XSIâ€™s embedded Mental Ray for rendering. The Millâ€™s â€œsecret sauceâ€ helped considerably in transferring the geometry back and forth between the packages.
â€œOur software enables our office to choose which package they want to work in,â€ explains Smith. â€œIt worked brilliantly. When the animator is finishing, he or she overwrites the file, and it immediately updates in the render. Both animating and rendering took a long time to refine, and this way we could animate and render concurrently.â€
Two other tools helped to sell the CG balloons. Autodesk Mayaâ€™s nCloth, which is based on the companyâ€™s new Nucleus technology, enabled the animators to maintain a believable volume for the balloons, especially as they squashed against skyscrapers and each other. â€œThe squashy reactiveness was something we really had to push to make it absolutely real,â€ says Smith. â€œUsing nCloth, we developed a few pre-settings that worked well, and then we tweaked it on a shot-by-shot basis.â€ The second tool was Autodeskâ€™s Mudbox, a paint-based application that Keith Kim, an artist at The Mill, used to hand paint all the creases in the balloons.
The Budweiser Clydesdales are Super Bowl commercial favorites. This year, the effects are mostly hidden, especially in the backgrounds, where digital magic changed the seasons.
The Mill also created a background shot, when bad weather halted the shoot in New York. After taking digital stills of the New York location, The Millâ€™s artistic team rebuilt the backdrop in XSI and used Science-D-Visionâ€™s 3D Equalizer to track it.
Because The Mill created the hero characters, it also played a role in the offline editing of the spot. In previsualization, The Mill creatives established a number of actions they wanted to incorporate, such as the head butt, and the timing for each action was crucial. â€œEarly on, we realized the balloons had to move at a certain speed to look real,â€ Smith explains. â€œIf they went too fast, they immediately looked CG. We had a lot of creative control to make [the animation] work as a story.â€
ANHEUSER - "Team"
DDB Chicago (Omnicon)Production company:
The Budweiser Clydesdale horses are a staple at the Super Bowl. Every year, viewers wait to see what the trademark horses will be up to. This time, Anheuser-Busch and its agency, DDB Chicago, have outdone themselves with â€œTeam,â€ a commercial that hit a soft spot for viewers and wowed most of the critics.
Combining the emotional arc of Rocky with the beautiful horses and an adorable dog, â€œTeamâ€ charts the course of Hank the horse, who begins training in hopes of becoming strong enough to pull the Budweiser beer wagon. As Hank trains, we see him perform such super-equine feats as pulling a line of railroad cars, encouraged by a friendly Dalmatian, until he makes the team.
When Hank pulls the railroad cars, thatâ€™s probably one of the few moments that a viewer might realize the spot actually includes some digital derring-do. â€œThe visual effects are there, but theyâ€™re so well integrated that you donâ€™t even know theyâ€™re there,â€ says Rob Churchill, Filmworkers Club creative director and lead artist. â€œThe effects were truly present to help tell the story.â€
Perhaps the most invisible effect is the one that was the most pervasive. To show that Hank trained hard for an entire year, Filmworkers Club had to change the seasons in the spot, which was shot in Southern California. â€œI did several matte paintings and composited them into the scenes for the rough cut, to make it come alive,â€ says Churchill. â€œFor the final cut, I created matte paintings in Autodeskâ€™s Smoke, and combined that with some photography.â€
Using the 3D capabilities within Smoke, Churchill painted a full-on blizzard, enhancing it with stock-footage elements, for a scene in which the horse runs through a birch forest. For the autumn scene, he replaced foreground trees with others full of brightly colored leaves, adding falling leaves of similar hues. A farm in the background was replaced with the scene of fall trees on a mountainside. â€œThe only elements that were left was one tree and Hank the horse,â€ notes Churchill.
For the shots of summer, all Churchill had to work with was a blown-out sky. â€œThe original intent was to do a sky pass,â€ he says. â€œThe agency thought it might be nice to put a mountain back there. We found a beautifully colored stock photo of a mountain-scape that said â€˜summer.â€™ That was our base, and we doctored it up by changing the lighting a bit.â€
For the final shots, says Churchill, the group went â€œfull bore,â€ with meticulous rotoscoping around Hank, his hair, and objects to create a perfect matte, while hand-painted trees tin the background to make the composition of the scene perfect. Autodesk Inferno artists Chris Ryan and Rick Thompson helped add many of these subtle details.
For the scene of Hank pulling the freight cars, Churchill reveals that Hank galloped on the tracks, while another plate captured the train car being pushed by an engine. The engine was digitally removed from the picture, and Churchillâ€™s team created 3D digital harnesses in Autodesk Maya.
â€œWe had to make sure the rigging matched how the Clydesdales are rigged,â€ Churchill says. â€œWe had the production company take close-up, detailed photos of the rigging so we could create it digitally.â€ For all the shots, the main toolsâ€”Flame, Inferno, and Mayaâ€”were networked together using Quantumâ€™s StorNext data-management software so the programs could share the same multi-terabyte storage system.
Filmworkers Clubâ€™s own Rocky feat was finishing the spot in two and a half weeks, at the same time they were finishing seven other Bud Light commercials, eight Cars.com spots, and a host of Will Ferrell Semi-Pro commercials. â€œIt was a wonderful opportunity to show how much we could handle all at once,â€ says Churchill. Changing all those backgrounds to tell the story was challenging, but we got wonderful input from [agency creative] Adam Glickman, and that made us want to go for the gold.â€
FEDEX - "Carrier Pigeon"Director:
MJZ CG company:
Framestore CFC NY
Carrier pigeons have a place in the history of mail delivery, and BBDO helped client FedEx use the feathered postmen to make a point about the companyâ€™s speed and reliability. In â€œCarrier Pigeon,â€ a young man explains to his boss how carrier pigeons, outfitted with GPS units, have solved all the companyâ€™s shipping problems. That is, until the duo look out the window and see monstrous-sized pigeons dropping crates onto a city street filled with people terrorized by the huge birds.
The commercial was an artful blend of live-action greenscreen photography and very realistic 3D computer graphics. Framestore CFC NY visual effects supervisor Murray Butler, who went to the live-action shoot, reports that the number of physical stunts captured in-camera helped in building the realism. â€œWe did drop a crate from 150 feet in the air, and we did toss cars through windows,â€ he says. â€œWe didnâ€™t skimp on physical things on set and leave it all to CG. That, combined with what we did, gives the commercial a bigger, grander scale.â€
The mayhem in the FedEx spot â€œCarrier Pigeonâ€ is the result of physical effects coupled with realistic VFX. The giant pigeons, of course, are 3D.
Another reason to try to capture as much on the set as possible is that Butler and his Framestore CFC team realized they would have enough on their hands creating photorealistic pigeons. â€œThe more physical elements we have, the better itâ€™s going to look, unless you have an unlimited amount of time and can make CG glass, for example,â€ he says.
The 3D department began developing the pigeons in November, in anticipation of the mid-December shoot, with animation beginning Christmas week. â€œThat gave us eight weeks,â€ says Framestore CFC senior technical director Andy Walker.
The Framestore CFC creative team simultaneously started previsualization to block out animation, and hunkered down with R&D on the pigeons. Reference material included a stuffed pigeon bought from a taxidermist. â€œTwo problems were covering the body with feathers and getting the wings to open and close with so many feathers,â€ says Butler. â€œThe transition from open wing to closed wing is quite complex.â€
The main pigeon rig was built within Autodeskâ€™s Maya, and it incorporated flight feathers and tail feathers. â€œWith a mix of built-in Maya tools and customer tools, that got us 75 percent of the way there,â€ says Walker. â€œThe interesting bit is that we used nCloth, a built-in Maya tool and a new technology that integrates all their dynamic simulation into a single pipeline.â€ According to Butler, nCloth was applied to the wing and tail feathers, which added dynamics and made the feathers lay perfectly over one another.
Smaller body feathers were still an issue, and Side Effectsâ€™ Houdini saved the day for this task. â€œItâ€™s a very good tool for experimenting with highly technical setups,â€ Walker says. He describes the process: â€œIn Houdini, weâ€™d get the pigeon with the flight feathers already animated. Then we placed 15,000 to 20,000 body feathers over the body and groomed them onto the pigeon surface. We created a command-line raytracing tool that sorted out all the feathers and made sure they laid perfectly on top of one another.â€ The artists then brought the pigeons back into Maya for lighting and rendering.
Shots that combined real and CG versions of the same object were the most challenging. For example, live-action photography was used for the shot of the crate being dropped to the ground. â€œBut we changed the trajectory, so we did that in 3D until the minute it hits the ground and breaks apart; that was when we used what was in-camera,â€ says Butler. â€œOver the entire spot, the main thing we did was add little touchesâ€”bits of dust kicking up, moments of defocus, camera shake.â€ In shots that didnâ€™t have enough pigeons, the group added rotoscoped pigeons from other takes and added them into the final shot. All the imagery was composited using a Flame system.
The special touch that Butler and his crew found the most amusing were the helmets that the pigeons wore. Although the real pigeons initially wore prop helmets, they didnâ€™t look convincing. So Framestore CFC created CG helmets and, using 2d3â€™s Boujou and RealVizâ€™s MatchMover, tracked the shots so they could place the accessory onto the pigeons.
â€œOne thing we thought was quite funny was the helmet display from the pigeonâ€™s point of view,â€ says Butler. â€œWe watched Terminator 2 and Resident Evilâ€”for which Framestore CFC did the effectsâ€”to create the graphics you see.â€
BRIDGESTONE - "Scream"Director:
The Richards GroupProduction company:
House of UsherCG company:
Itâ€™s a calm day in the country, and Chester, a friendly little squirrel, hops out onto the road to retrieve an acorn. As he nibbles the nutty treat, he sees an automobile bearing down on him at a high rate of speed. This horrifying scenario unleashes a series of screams from a forest full of animals. One by one, in overwrought comedic style, a raccoon, an owl, a rabbit, a mouse, a tortoise, a doe, a grasshopper, three groundhogs, and the carâ€™s passenger shriek. But, thanks to Bridgestone tires, their fears donâ€™t come to pass; the driver simply and safely swerves around the terrified squirrel.
From the moment that the Method creative team got the boards, they knew one job theyâ€™d be doing was face replacement for the animals. â€œWe knew they wanted exaggerated screams,â€ says lead 3D artist Andy Boyd. â€œAnd animals donâ€™t open their mouths on cue.â€
Director Kinka Usher did try, in fact, to capture as much as he could in-camera. To this end, an animal trainer brought a van full of animals to a shoot in the mountains near Los Angeles, and the crew was able to capture several of Chesterâ€™s movements using three squirrels. â€œWe got the shot when his head pops up in the beginning, him running into the road to get the acorn, and the very end shot when he runs out of frame,â€ says 3D artist James LeBloch.
Boyd reveals what made this commercial particularly challenging: The animal faces the artists needed to replace were full frameâ€”and in HD. â€œItâ€™s easy to see if you donâ€™t have the details right,â€ he says. â€œDoing a 3D squirrel was a challenge, but doing the face in 3D HD and cutting between the 3D CG face and the live-action one was even more of a challenge.â€
For the animation, modeling, and rigging, Method used Autodeskâ€™s Maya; for rendering and creating the animal fur, the team used Side Effectsâ€™ Houdini. Boyd created the fur tool that was plugged into Houdini.
In â€œScream,â€ digital artists were tasked with face replacements of woodland creatures. Making the task all the more difficult was that the final shots were shown full frame and in HD.
All the other animals were filmed live action except for the cricket, which was dead but needed a face replacement. (Boyd is quick to point out, though, that the insect was not killed in the making of the commercial.) â€œWe worked with a base plate where the animal did most of the motion, and we were tweaking it to get the most out of the performance,â€ explains Boyd.
Each artist chose an animal he or she wanted to work on. â€œIn that way, each artist could focus on his or her own shot, so we had a variety of looks and feelings for each shot,â€ LeBloch adds. â€œEach artist owned the shot.â€ Tracking the animalâ€™s head to replace the face was often done with 2d3â€™s Boujou or â€œold schoolâ€â€”by handâ€”if the face was too small.
The biggest challenge was turning all this work around in a short, eight-week timeframe. Most of the 3D comps were done in Appleâ€™s Shake and Adobeâ€™s After Effects. â€œWe would render eight passes and pre-comp that, and then deliver two layers to the [Autodesk] Flame artist,â€ explains Boyd. â€œThen the Flame artist would finish the comp, integrating live action with CG.â€
â€œA lot of the techniques we used were tried-and-true methods weâ€™ve used for years,â€ adds Boyd. â€œWhen dealing with fur, getting it to work right when the animals were moving subtly was tricky. We had to be very detailed with our tracking so nothing would give away our effect.â€
Boyd reports that creating the fur tool has already come in handy for another job and another animal: this time, a kangaroo, for a project he cannot name at this time.
Debra Kaufman is a freelance writer in the entertainment industry. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.